– Getting Started & Next Steps

Easy Steps to Get US Visa

It is almost everyone’s dream to have a beautiful experience away from home and that’s why many people want to explore America. This is a dream place that many tend to have an urge of wanting to step in and feel the essence of goodness. We only live once that’s why each one of us needs to enjoy life by visiting beautiful places like America and to get the visa to that place you must know the genuine agents. Getting US visa needs experience as there are so many scammers online who are there to con and frustrate you. This has pulled so many interested culprits around the world not to fulfill their dreams of ever seeing the beautiful scenery of America. Worry no more since there is always a solution for every problem and applying American visa is becoming easy as one can do this online from all over the world.

You can easily browse and look for the most convenient US visa application site and start right away from wherever around the world. We are dedicated to giving easy visa application steps to give people a chance to visit the US. US visa can be applied from wherever around the world as you don’t have to go to their offices, since you can find us through our website and fill the application forms to get identified as an interested party. However before the starting of US visa application you must know the type of visa you need since they vary. Note, all visas must be applied under the terms and conditions given to avoid delay and complication during processing of visa.

The Visa application site should be updated and be latest on visa application this is to avoid outdated terms for applicants. The best visa application agents are easy to deal with and also affordable this is very essential since people will understand the right thing to do. The best agents to apply American visa are ones that have easy terms and conditions and also they make it easier for applicants by helping them with paperwork.

We are secured US visa agents who want the better for all our interested customers, that’s why we ensure efficiency in the US visa application by providing good services to all. We are thriving to deliver the best US visa application by giving quality services to all out immigrants. We are friendly and that’s why we prepare all the paperwork for you and do all the proceedings right away for you. No hustle while applying with us since we do everything for you.

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Universal Banking – Answer For The Best Banking Design?

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In recent years, universal banking has been growing its popularity in Indonesia. Mandiri Bank, for example, has taken strategy to become Indonesia’s universal bank; this bank has also initiated to develop an integrated financial risk system in terms of sounding financial performance and increasing shareholder value. In Germany, and most developed countries in Europe, universal banks have initiated its operations since nineteen century. There is mounting evidence that in those countries, universal banks have taken an important part in the development of real sectors and the financial system. In those countries, the growing numbers of universal banking practices are really supported by the regulation of central of bank.

Despite, in The United States, they are strict to regulate universal banks by blocking commercial banks from engaging in securities and stock markets practices. They argued that the practice of universal banking might be harmful for the financial system. ((Boyd et.al, 1998) cited in Cheang, 2004) The “risk” might be the key reason why the central bank of The U.S is worried about the universal banking system. Since, if the central of bank allowed banks to adjust their operation to be universal banks, the relationship among, banks, financial and stock markets would be closer. Consequently, this would give an uncertainty to the banks condition and performance. For example, if there were a disaster in stock market, banks would get problems in their financial positions. Thus, they would tend to be insolvent.

In addition universal banks would also threaten the market share of other specialized institutions, because more customers would choose universal banks that offer more option to their investment. Hence, more specialized institutions are likely to be ruined in the U.S financial industry.

One majoring factor, which is triggering a bank to be universal bank, is to increase the profit by enlarging their market share. According to João A. C. Santos (1998) universal bank itself can be defined as the financial institution, which enlarges its service range in terms of offering a variety of financial products and services in one site. Thus, by operating universal banking, banks could get a greater opportunity to expand to another financial area, such as : financial securities, insurance, hedge funds and etc.

Although the trend of banks has recently tended to universal banks, it is undoubtedly true that universal banks would also face further risks because a wide range of financial services is strongly associated with increasing risks and escalating monitoring costs. These are the major concerns why banks have to implement more advance technology in terms of financial risk management. Moreover, the practices of universal banks would cause significant risks to economy’s payment system. Since, the operation of universal banks connects closely to the financial and stock markets that are very fluctuate in a short term.

To win in the tight competition among financial institutions, banks have to alter their maneuver to lead in the market. Universal bank could be the wise choice for the bank manager, because they can attract more customers with a wide range of services. Furthermore, by altering their operation to the universal banking system, banks would get benefits from the efficiency and economies of scale.

In order to understand about the universal banking practices, this paper would examine the exclusive matters, which related to the risks and benefits in a universal bank. Moreover, this paper would also focus the whole impact of this institution to the financial system and the economy as a whole.

1.2 PROFITS AND COSTS IN UNIVERSAL BANKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL BANKS

General problem related to financial intermediation, include universal banks and another type of banks, is about asymmetric information . It is the main problem that causes costs to increase and influence the performance of financial institutions. In Universal banks, the problems that would increase are slightly different with specialized banks; they are similar in that they should cope the risks problem associated with their financial position. Although, in universal banks, the risks are more bigger due to the wide range of financial instruments that they organized. Therefore, banks have to increase their spending on monitoring costs that are more complicated than specialized institutions or conventional banks.

Possible answer why more banks sacrifice to the escalating risks and transform it operation into the universal banking is that they want to compete and expand their market share, in order to seek a greater opportunity profits by serving more choices to their customers. Many banks has experienced a great performance after they alter their operation, the main concerns are that they could reach better economies of scale which can reduce the amount of spending in operational costs and also a greater opportunity to get more profits. The research finding which was conducted by Vender, R. (2002, cited in Cheang, 2004) about the efficiency of revenue in financial conglomerates and the level of both profit and cost in universal banking, has proved that both financial conglomerates and universal banking contain good performance in several indicators of bank profitability. His finding also suggests that the sustained expansion of financial conglomerates and universal banking practices may increase efficiency in the financial system.

This opinion is strengthen by another experts, like : George Rich and Christian Walter (1993). They state that universal banks which posse benefits over specialized institutions, are able to take advantage of reduction in the average cost of production and scope in banking. It is essential for banks that operate on a international level and in order to fulfill customer needs with a variety of financial services. They also mention a classic example how universal banks in some countries, such as : Switzerland, Germany and more European countries has experienced benefits by operating universal banking. In addition, they also state that the fear if universal bank would threaten specialized institutions has not proven. In Switzerland and Germany, for example, specialized institutions could achieve a better improvement in terms of cooperating with big banks. Universal banks are one of potential market channel which can sell their products directly to the customers, so specialized institutions also get additional return due to the increases in the number of universal banks. Therefore, this proves that universal banks do not threat other institutions; in fact, they support specialized institutions to market their products.

According to Fohlin, universal banking would lead to a bank’s concentration due to the increases the number of branch. Based on Germany’s experience, such branching-based expansion has led to the efficiency in banking because it could increase economies of scale in advertising and marketing, and open an enormous opportunity to enhance diversification and steadiness for banks.

A universal bank has unique position to tackle asymmetric information. As stated by Joao A. C. Santos (1998), that a universal bank has potential benefits on the reduction of agency cost and acquires profits due to information advantages. Although in other sides, universal banking also face problems related to the cost, conflict of interest and safety and soundness. But the default risk, which is generally happened in financial intermediation, would decrease substantially because universal banks are easier to control over their customers. Most of lenders in universal banks are their customers, so they can understand about the capacity of the customers from the information that they gather.

Nicholas Cheang (2004) also points out how universal banks could reduce a crucial problem in financial institution, asymmetric information. He argued that they could preserve a close relationship with their borrowers, by gathering more relevant information to make an important decision for investment. Their advantageous positions also vital to optimize the distribution of fund allocation, because banks have already known which investment that would give more margins to them. So, they don’t need to worry too much about the risk.

1.3 UNIVERSAL BANKS AND THE STABILITY IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Financial institution plays a vital role in terms of mobilizing funds in the economy. Consequently, stability in financial system is really important to manage by government in order to prevent wider implications to the real sectors. Financial disasters which happened in most countries in Asia in 1997 are the classic examples how importance to save banks to recover the economy.

As the financial supermarkets, which are handling a variety of financial instruments, they must face a greater risk than specialized institutions. As a consequence, this institution needs to be monitored closely in order to prevent more implications to the economy. According to Benston (1994), the escalating risks in universal banking would lead to a great problem because it can cause generous distress in the financial system. Hence, it will greatly increase the risk to the economy’s payment system. In another term, Rime and Strioh (2001) who examine the financial system in Switzerland in which universal banking are becoming more important in this country, state that difficulty in monitoring large universal banks is a major concern. This is the reason why universal bank has to spend more money in monitoring cost and develop an advanced system in information technology. In other words, it could say that the consequence of inefficient monitoring could lead to financial instability. (Cheang, 2004)

A wider range of universal banks in financial system makes the fund channels of banks to the customer are larger than specialized institutions. So, the economy will improve because universal banks will support more funding. This can be seen by the fact that a universal bank practice in Germany has triggered the progress of some enterprises performance in this country. (Stiglitz, 1985). It is understandable that when the allocation of fund can distribute widely and effectively to the potential enterprises, the economy will improve. In this context, universal banks have played as the key institution which mobilize fund to the potential lender.

Edwards (1996), has also proved that a universal bank is not just significantly contributed to economy from the external funds that they provide, but also from the improvement of the information flows. (cited in Cheang, 2004) Therefore, this proves that universal banks have played a significant role in terms of reducing the default risk by providing important information about the lender or customers. Furthermore, the safety of the financial system would be improved by the existence of universal banks.

1.4 CONCLUSION

The development of universal banks has to in line with the policy direction of central bank, because it is important to keep the stability of financial system and the economy as whole. There are three important areas that must be concerned related to universal bank operations, such as : the strengthened of capital and advanced risk management system. Consequently, in order to manage universal bank, people need to be aware about the unique of the risk type in universal banking. Furthermore, policy maker must also consider about the implication of universal banks in financial system.

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Impact Of Technology In Banking

In the world of banking and finance nothing stands still. The biggest change of all is in the, scope of the business of banking. Banking in its traditional from is concerned with the acceptance of deposits from the customers, the lending of surplus of deposited money to suitable customers who wish to borrow and transmission of funds. Apart from traditional business, banks now a days provide a wide range of services to satisfy the financial and non financial needs of all types of customers from the smallest account holder to the largest company and in some cases of non customers. The range of services offered differs from bank to bank depending mainly on the type and size of the bank.

RESERVE BANK’S EARLY INITIATIVES
As a central bank in a developing country, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has adopted development of the banking and financial market as one of its prime objectives. “Institutional development” was the hallmark of this approach from 1950s to 1970s. In the 1980s, the Reserve Bank focused on “improvements in the productivity” of the banking sector. Being convinced that technology is the key for improving in productivity, the Reserve Bank took several initiatives to popularize usage of technology by banks in India.

Periodically, almost once in five years since the early 1980s, the Reserve Bank appointed committees and working Groups to deliberate on and recommend the appropriate use of technology by banks give the circumstances and the need. These committees are as follows:
-Rangarajan committee -1 in early 1980s.
-Rangarajan committee -11 in late 1980s.
-Saraf working group in early 1990s.
-Vasudevan working group in late 1990s.
-Barman working group in early 2000s.

Based on the recommendations of these committees and working groups, the Reserve Bank issued suitable guidelines for the banks. In the 1980s, usage of technology for the back office operations of the banks predominated the scene. It was in the form of accounting of transactions and collection of MIS. In the inter-bank payment systems, it was in the form of clearing and settlement using the MICR technology.

Two momentous decisions of the Reserve Bank in the 1990s changed the scenario for ever there are:
a) The prescription of compulsory usage of technology in full measure by the new private sector banks as a precondition of the license and
b) The establishment of an exclusive research institute for banking technology institute for development and Research in Banking Technology.

As the new private sector banks came on the scene as technology-savvy banks and offered several innovative products at the front office for the customers based on technology, the demonstration effect caught on the reset of the banks. Multi channel offerings like machine based (ATMs and pc-Banking), card based (credit/Debit/Smart cards), Communication based (Tele-Banking and Internet Banking) ushered in Anytime and Anywhere Banking by the banks in India. The IDRBT has been instrumental in establishing a safe and secure, state of the art communication backbone in the from of the Indian Financial NETwork (INFINET) as a closed user group exclusively for the banking and financial sector in India.

CHANGING FACE OF BANKING SERVICES
Liberalization brought several changes to Indian service industry. Probably Indian banking industry learnt a tremendous lesson. Pre-liberalization, all we did at a bank was deposit and withdraw money. Service standards were pathetic, but all we could do was grin and bear it. Post-liberalization, the tables have turned. It’s a consumer oriented market there.

Technology is revolutionizing every field of human endeavor and activity. One of them is introduction of information technology into capital market. The internet banking is changing the banking industry and is having the major effects on banking relationship. Web is more important for retail financial services than for many other industries.

Retail banking in India is maturing with time, several products, which further could be customized. Most happening sector is housing loan, which is witnessing a cut-throat competition. The home loans are very popular as they help you to realize your most cherished dream. Interest rates are coming down and market has seen some innovative products as well. Other retail banking products are personal loan, education loan and vehicles loan. Almost every bank and financial institution is offering these products, but it is essential to understand the different aspects of these loan products, which are not mentioned in their colored advertisements.

PLASTIC MONEY
Plastic money was a delicious gift to Indian market. Giving respite from carrying too much cash. Now several new features added to plastic money to make it more attractive. It works on formula purchase now repay later. There are different facts of plastic money credit card is synonyms of all.

Credit card is a financial instrument, which can be used more than once to borrow money or buy products and services on credit. Banks, retail stores and other businesses generally issue these. On the basis of their credit limit, they are of different kinds like classic, gold or silver.

Charged cards-these too carry almost same features as credit cards. The fundamental difference is you can not defer payments charged generally have higher credit limits or some times no credit limits.
Debit cards-this card is may be characterized as accountholder’s mobile ATM, for this you have to have account with any bank offering credit card.

Over the years, the banking sector in India has seen a no. of changes. Most of the banks have begun to take an innovative approach towards banking with the objective of creating more value for customers and consequently, the banks. Some of the significant changes in the banking sector are discussed below.

MOBILE BANKING
Taking advantages of the booming market for mobile phones and cellular services, several banks have introduced mobile banking which allows customers to perform banking transactions using their mobile phones. For instances HDFC has introduced SMS services. Mobile banking has been especially targeted at people who travel frequently and to keep track of their banking transaction.

RURAL BANKING
One of the innovative scheme to be launched in rural banking was the KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) SCHMME started in fiscal 1998-1999 by NABARD. KCC mode it easier for framers to purchase important agricultural inputs. In addition to regular agricultural loans, banks to offer several other products geared to the needs of the rural people.

Private sector Banks also realized the potential in rural market. In the early 2000’s ICICI bank began setting up internet kiosks in rural Tamilnadu along with ATM machines.

NRI SERVICES
With a substantial number of Indians having relatives abroad, banks have begun to offer service that allows expatriate Indians to send money more conveniently to relatives India which is one of the major improvements in money transfer.

E-BANKING
E-Banking is becoming increasingly popular among retail banking customers. E-Banking helps in cutting costs by providing cheaper and faster ways of delivering products to customers. It also helps the customer to choose the time, place and method by which he wants to use the services and gives effect to multichannel delivery of service by the bank. This E-Banking is driven by twin engine of “customer-pull and Bank-push”.

CONCLUSION
Technology has been one of the most important factors for the development of mankind. Information and communication technology is the major advent in the field of technology which is used for access, process, storage and dissemination of information electronically. Banking industry is fast growing with the use of technology in the from of ATMs, on-line banking, Telephone banking, Mobile banking etc., plastic card is one of the banking products that cater to the needs of retail segment has seen its number grow in geometric progression in recent years. This growth has been strongly supported by the development of in the field of technology, without which this could not have been possible of course it will change our lifestyle in coming years.

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Characteristics Of The Best Cleaning Service Company In Fort Walton Beach

Cleaning is an essential aspect in life will be adopted and be observed regularly given the benefits that it brings forth, not forgetting that it helps us so much in avoiding getting contaminated and the spreading of bacteria and germs causing diseases. It is imperative that you consider getting the help of experts or trained Personnel in handling cleaning services since cleaning is not an easy task given the fact that most of the time you are tired and you cannot perform it correctly and this is a good reason why you should get a cleaning company to assist you.

Another important thing to always have in mind when looking for the services of the best training company is to ensure that you are familiar with all cleaning service companies around you by searching on the internet or any other advertising agent such as the radio, billboards, or posters as this information will be helpful in analyzing the companies one by one. It is very imperative that you consider getting information on the website of the different companies that you have listed so that you can be able to check the services that they provide, and from this, you can be able to choose the one that you think can fit your needs properly. Many customers and clients posting the honest opinions and views about the services provided by a given service provider, and this is the case with cleaning service company, and we advise you visit the review page where you can get such comments, and you should only select the company that has received the most positive recommendation.

Another essential people looking for the services of the best cleaning company, is by checking if the company is licensed and authorized by the government or local authorities to perform such functions, as this guarantees you of quality service and a genuine entity. Experience is a very critical requirement in any field of work, and that is why should always consider selecting a cleaning company that has an external level of experience as this means that they have comprehensive knowledge about cleaning from the house, office or swimming pool and beaches, and they’re certainly in a good position of providing the best services. Insurance had helped in bringing back businesses to their feet by bring them back to the original position before any damage or loss occurred, on this is why we strongly advise you on selecting a cleaning service company that is insured as it gives you a good chance of not losing anything in case an accident or any loss occurs. By considering the suggestions as mentioned above, our readers are in the best position of getting the services of a perfect cleaning company which will bring satisfaction to their needs.

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